History of the Abacus

The abacus has a very long history. It spans over thousands of years. The earliest abacus was invented about 5000 years ago. Some expert historians believe that the abacus was invented by the ancient Chinese. Still others are of the opinion that the abacus was invented by the Babylonians or by the Egyptians. However, all these claims are backed by historical evidence like archaeological excavations and ancient texts. It may be possible that many civilizations may have invented the abacus independently and roughly at the same time.

The first counting device was the human hand and the fingers. The reason why we use the decimal system is that there are 10 fingers (both hands combined) and so it is very easy to count if 10 is the base. Later on man started using natural objects and markings to count and calculate. Larger quantities [exceeding 10] could not be easily count on the fingers. So various natural objects like pebbles and twigs were used.

Merchants needed not only needed a way to count the goods that they bought and sold, they also needed a method to perform calculations. This was achieved with the help of counting boards. Until the advent of a proper number system, counting boards were very popular. The abacus has its origin in one such counting board.

Time line of the history of the abacus:

  • 3000 BC: An early form of abacus originates in the Orient
  • 1000 BC: Chinese start using counting boards
  • 500 BC: Romans and Greeks use counting boards
  • 300 BC: Abacus is widely used as a counting device in China
  • 500 AD: The abacus is used in Europe

The Benefits of Alternative Medicine and Radiotherapy

Alternate medicine and radiotherapy are a combination that is growing in popularity. Radiotherapy treatment is normally used in cancer patients, with the most common type known as external beam therapy. This name evolved because the treatment consists of a beam of radiation that comes from a very sophisticated machine. The beam is focused on the part of the body that contains the tumor, and the largest amount of radiation possible is used to kill the cancer cells.

Radiotherapy is very hard on the body. The treatments are short in duration, no more than 10 to 15 minutes. There is no pain involved with these treatments, but the side effects afterwards can be brutal, depending on the individual. Extreme tiredness and nausea, pain, hair loss, and red and tender skin are a few of the most common. The use of alternate medicine and radiotherapy together is indicated when the patient wants natural relief from the ravages of radiation side effects.

Nausea is one of the most severe side effects of radiotherapy treatments. Most of the people who must go through the treatments would do anything to get some relief from the seemingly never-ending sickness. Alternative medicine and radiotherapy research has been done on a test group of cancer patients to determine whether or not acupuncture was effective in diminishing the persistent nausea andomiting. Patients reported that they could tell a dramatic difference in the frequency and amount of nausea they had. Written records were kept by each patient of the times that they were sick, and at the end of the research, these records were collated. The final analysis in this study was that acupuncture is useful in preventing nausea in radiotherapy patients.

Acupuncture has also been tested on groups of alternative medicine and radiotherapy believers to see if it could possibly be of help in the relief of pain, another unwelcome side effect of radiation treatments. Nearly all patients undergoing radiotherapy reported various degrees of pain that was definitely related to their treatments. Acupuncture once again provided to be effective in helping cancer patients undergoing treatments for their condition.

The Chinese medicine called acupressure works well with alternative medicine and radiotherapy in helping cancer patients control nausea. This natural technique involves massaging certain areas on the body, usually just under or on top of the skin. These areas are called acupoints, and they are supposedly interconnected with each other as well as various organs and systems of the body. Devotees to this 5000 year old healing method say that a careful massage in a certain area can stimulate a person's essential life force, which flows from area to area rather like the circulation of blood. A look at an acupressure chart reveals that the areas that control nausea andomiting are directly above the kneecap, on the wrist, and about 2 inches above the wrist. People who have tried acupressure are both surprised and delelled with how quickly it relieves their symptoms.

Nokia 6280: Take Full Advantage of 3G Multimedia Opportunities

The Nokia 6280 is a joy to use and with a vivid, bright and clear display. The key features include a MP3 player, PTT (Push To Talk), dual integrated cameras with video calling and email with attachment support. The 6280 includes a 64MB miniSD card in the package and this should be enough storage. The phone provides an ideal platform for 3G services such as real time video sharing and two way video calling. The phone creates a natural, user friendly conventional camera experience by operating the photography function in a horizontal landscape mode.

Pictures and videos taken with Nokia 6280 can be viewed directly on the screen and then shared with others via MMS or email. The 2 megapixel camera of Nokia 6280 snaps stills of good quality in daylight and adequate quality in darker environments. More features are Bluetooth dial-up networking, MP3 ringtones, 6 MB of onboard memory, miniSD memory card expansion, 64 MB card bundled, headset and printing support, USB 2.0 connectivity with PictBridge support, Tri-band GSM with EDGE support, Stereo FM radio. When it comes to adding extra software, Java is supported and if you want to synchronize with a PC, you get both the software and a cable that allows you to get good sound output both from the radio and the music player.

The Nokia 6280 mobile phone has a classic feel to it. The solid built frame only weighs 115g, lighter than other 3G phones from Nokia. The phone runs on WCDMA and tri band GSM, supporting video calls at a high speed of 384kbps. The push to talk (PTT) technology allows you to instantly talk to other people following a PTT phone on the same network just by the push of a button.

Nokia 6280

Steps in Obtaining a Birth Certificate Copy Online

The Internet is a vast and truly wide repository of updated information, records, as well as archives of past data. In doing a search for public records online, experts note that the first crucial step towards quickly locating information about people, companies or personal data begins with gaining a thorough understanding of what defines a public record as well as private information. After gaining a clear overview of the limitations and scope of a public record search, you’ll find out how important this search mechanism is, especially in searching for information such as a birth certificate copy, among other sensitive and vital information.

In essence, personal or confidential data is considered as private and restricted information. Items such as date of birth, an individual’s Social Security number, insurance, medical, financial, as well as birth records are private by definition; however, online researchers note that confidential private data sometimes becomes public, which means that you may be able to locate or retrieve these types of records ethically and legally. This includes searching for a birth certificate copy.

The first step to do in finding birth certificate copies online is to type the name of the city/town where the person you’re looking for was born, along with the name of the county in the search engine. After this, locate the specific county register, by typing for example ‘county register/clerk recorder’. Once you get in the county registrar’s Web site, begin searching for the birth certificate. Once you’ve found the specific record, print out a copy of the certificate’s request form, fill the forms and read the instructions. Once you get the copy of the form, have it notarized and send it to the indicated address along with the required check or money order payment for the fees.

In obtaining birth certificate copies online, you should know that some US counties are so small that they may not have the required information posted on their web site. Should this be the case, and then call the phone number posted on their site for proper instructions. Online search records experts say that some counties will allow you to order a copy of you birth certificate online, and all you need to present is a valid credit card, as well as to fax the notarized request form to the county registrar. These days however, with concerns about identity fraud or theft, not all individuals are allowed to obtain certified birth record copies. The persons or individuals who are only allowed to obtain an authorized certified copy are the registrant himself or his/her parent and legal guardian. The individual or entity may also be allowed to obtain certified birth record copies online whenever this is mandated by a court order, or from a lawyer or a registered adoption agency that wants to obtain the person’s birth record copies in compliance with certain sections of the US Family Code. Law enforcement officials and representatives of a governmental agency are also allowed to access birth records, provided that they are conducting official business. Lastly, a child, sibling, spouse or grandchild of the individual may also be allowed to obtain copies of his/her birth records, as long as these persons have been properly authorized to do so.